If you fulfilled a Neanderthal, the very first point you could notice is that your hominin cousin was a bit shorter than your typical human. Neanderthals were being both shorter and thicker than we are, so even though you could defeat them on the basketball courtroom, they could most likely out-arm-wrestle you.
The upcoming point you’d most likely notice is a broad and flaring nose with massive nostrils. Some researchers have hypothesized this was an adaptation that authorized them to breathe chilly air extra effortlessly and adapt to frigid European climates. Neanderthals also had protruding brows and weak chins, while their jaws appeared to be extra developed than ours.
A little something you could not notice, while it is a significant variance between us and Neanderthals, is the volume of their cranium. Their brains were being probably greater than ours, while it is not known how that impacted their cognition.
Past bodily differences, it is challenging to say how Neanderthals differed from present day people. The clues we do have arrive from their genome, which was sequenced fully in 2010. The historic hominins shared about 99.seven % of their genetic material with us — indicating they were being mostly human in this regard. How the rest differed is mostly unclear, while we do have some thoughts.
Neanderthals and people interbred a number of periods, and we have received some Neanderthal DNA in our genomes. Scientists have tracked what some of those genes do, and it gives a broad glimpse at some Neanderthal traits. For case in point, genes from Neanderthals relate to how our immune units combat off pathogens, how our bodies use keratin and our sense of smell.
This story is component of an ongoing collection discovering issues about human origins. Browse extra about historic people: